July 2023

Primary and Secondary Antibodies in Immunoassays

2024-05-06T12:38:16-04:00July 7th, 2023|Articles|

Written by: Genya Gorshtein, MSc Published: June 13, 2023 Contents Introduction How do Primary and Secondary Antibodies Work? How are Primary and Secondary Antibodies Generated? Selecting Primary and Secondary Antibodies for Immunoassays Developing Reliable Reagents for Immunoassays with Rapid Novor Introduction Immunoassays have a [...]

August 2022

Moving Towards Biosimilar Drugs

2024-04-01T16:01:07-04:00August 4th, 2022|Articles|

Written by: Vanessa Yoon Calvelo, PhD Published: August 3, 2022 Contents What are Biosimilar Drugs? Why are Biosimilars Being Developed? Biosimilars are not the Equivalent of Generics Biosimilar Development Biosimilar Monoclonal Antibodies De Novo Protein Sequencing Solutions in Biosimilar Development What are Biosimilar Drugs? Biosimilar drugs, [...]

June 2022

Why do Post-Translational Modifications Matter?

2023-05-15T11:19:45-04:00June 14th, 2022|Articles|

Written by: Vanessa Yoon Calvelo, PhD Updated: January 19, 2023 (Published: June 2, 2022) Contents What are post-translational modifications (PTMs)? Impact of PTMs Types of PTMs PTMs increase microheterogeneity of antibodies Characterization of PTMs by next generation protein sequencing The Importance of Post-Translational Modifications (PTMs) Post-translational [...]

Protein Structure and How to Study It

2023-05-15T11:21:16-04:00June 10th, 2022|Articles|

Written by: Yuning Wang, PhD Updated: January 26, 2023 (Published: June 3, 2022) Contents Introduction The Four Levels of Protein Structure How are Protein Structures Studied? Introduction Structural information provides a great deal of understanding of how a protein works, which can allow us to [...]

February 2022

Camelid Antibodies and Nanobodies

2024-05-06T12:47:07-04:00February 4th, 2022|Articles|

Written by: Yuning Wang, PhD Updated: January 18, 2023 (Published: January 21, 2022) Contents Discovery of Camelid Antibodies What are Camelid Antibodies? Structure of Camelid Antibodies and Nanobodies Advantages of Camelid Antibodies and Nanobodies Camelid Antibodies and Nanobodies for Therapeutic and Research Applications How are Camelid Antibodies [...]

January 2022

Recombinant Antibodies: A New Generation Enabled by Protein Sequencing

2024-05-06T12:49:01-04:00January 19th, 2022|Articles|

Recombinant antibodies are artificially synthesized antibodies. Recombinant antibodies are generated from expression systems (e.g., E.coli, yeast, mammalian cell lines) via transfection with two separate plasmids encoding the amino acid sequences for the light and heavy chains, respectively. In order to recombinantly produce mAbs, the amino acid sequence of the light and heavy chains must be known. There are many ways to obtain the sequence of an antibody.

December 2021

Next Generation Protein Sequencing in Veterinary Medicine and Industry

2024-04-24T10:44:32-04:00December 3rd, 2021|Whitepapers|

Since 2006, the One Health Initiative (OHI)’s goal has been to demonstrate the inextricable link between humans, animals, and the environment. Certainly, the current global pandemic is a great testament to the ties between climate change, humans, and animals that OHI has been working to highlight. The rise of other zoonotic diseases (e.g., Hendra, and Nipah viruses) not only directly affect humans through disease transmission but may also result in deep impacts to the food supply

October 2021

What is Peptide Mapping?

2024-04-01T15:47:50-04:00October 28th, 2021|Articles|

Peptide mapping is a widely used analytical technique to verify the primary structure (amino acid sequence) and characterize the chemical modifications of a protein. It analyzes peptides generated from the digestion of an isolated protein, or a protein mixture

August 2021

Antibody Validation and its Use Cases

2024-04-29T13:22:17-04:00August 4th, 2021|Articles|

Antibodies are used in a variety of ways in academia and industry, from tools to therapeutics. Because antibodies are produced using live processes, which are naturally error-prone, validation is required from time to time. Furthermore, to develop biological therapeutics, the protein sequence must be confirmed as part of the regulatory process.

July 2021

Why Verifying the Protein Sequence Is Crucial for Antibody Validation

2023-06-21T10:46:18-04:00July 23rd, 2021|Articles|

As proteins are assembled, they fold into different structural orders: from primary to quaternary. The exact sequence of the primary structure (the amino acid sequence) will dictate how a protein will fold and function. The importance of the primary structure has been noted in several studies, where changes in the original amino acid sequence have resulted in affinity problems, binding disruption, reduced half-life, and higher aggregation odds.

What is Protein Mass Spectrometry?

2023-06-21T10:44:34-04:00July 18th, 2021|Articles|

Protein mass spectrometry refers to the use of mass spectrometry in studying and characterizing proteins, including their quantification, profiling, interaction mapping, and identification of their post-translational modifications. Protein mass spectrometry may also be referred to as mass spectrometry-based proteomics. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics comprises three approaches: top-down, middle-down, and bottom-up proteomics.

Isoleucine and Leucine

2023-05-15T11:51:04-04:00July 7th, 2021|Articles|

Because they share the same mass, isoleucine and leucine are known as isobaric amino acids. Conventional mass spectrometry-based proteomics cannot be easily used to distinguish between isoleucine and leucine.

June 2021

Major Antibody Databases and Their Applications

2023-05-15T11:56:11-04:00June 18th, 2021|Articles|

Written by María Gerpe, PhD June 18, 2021 Introduction Research publications represent an additional source of validation proof for commercially available antibodies. As such, academic and industry scientists often also rely on publication references to decide which commercial antibody to purchase. Several independent efforts exist to compile such information. For instance, [...]

February 2017

Antibody Protein Sequence Analysis Using Mass Spectrometry

2023-05-15T11:58:18-04:00February 3rd, 2017|Articles|

One of the most important pieces of information researchers need to know during early stage antibody drug research and development is the sequence information of the antibody protein. With the advancement of mass spectrometry instrumentation and technologies, it is helpful, and sometimes critical, to conduct sequence analysis using mass spectrometry experiments.