August 2022

Moving Towards Biosimilar Drugs

2022-11-17T13:38:05-05:00August 4th, 2022|Articles|

Written by Vanessa Yoon Calvelo, PhD August 3, 2022 Contents What are Biosimilar Drugs? Why are Biosimilars Being Developed? Biosimilars are not the Equivalent of Generics Biosimilar Development Biosimilar Monoclonal Antibodies De Novo Protein Sequencing Solutions in Biosimilar Development What are Biosimilar Drugs? Biosimilar drugs, also known [...]

June 2022

Why do Post-Translational Modifications Matter?

2022-08-09T16:40:29-04:00June 14th, 2022|Articles|

Written by Vanessa Yoon Calvelo, PhD June 2, 2022 Contents What are post-translational modifications (PTMs)? Impact of PTMs Types of PTMs PTMs increase microheterogeneity of antibodies Characterization of PTMs by next generation protein sequencing What are Post-Translational Modifications? Post-translational modifications (PTMs) are processing events typically driven by [...]

Protein Structure and How to Study it

2022-06-10T10:22:08-04:00June 10th, 2022|Articles|

Written by Yuning Wang, PhD June 3, 2022 Contents Background Four levels of protein structure How are protein structures studied? Background Structural information provides a great deal of understanding of how a protein works, which can allow us to elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying human diseases. Rapidly developing [...]

February 2022

Camelid Antibodies and Nanobodies

2022-11-17T14:09:21-05:00February 4th, 2022|Articles|

Written by Yuning Wang, PhD January 21, 2022 Contents Discovery of Camelid Antibodies What are Camelid Antibodies? Structure of Camelid Antibodies and Nanobodies Applications of Nanobodies How are Nanobodies Developed? References Discovery of Camelid Antibodies Three decades ago, the discovery1 of a peculiar [...]

January 2022

December 2021

Next Generation Protein Sequencing in Veterinary Medicine and Industry

2022-07-05T14:24:01-04:00December 3rd, 2021|Whitepapers|

Since 2006, the One Health Initiative (OHI)’s goal has been to demonstrate the inextricable link between humans, animals, and the environment. Certainly, the current global pandemic is a great testament to the ties between climate change, humans, and animals that OHI has been working to highlight. The rise of other zoonotic diseases (e.g., Hendra, and Nipah viruses) not only directly affect humans through disease transmission but may also result in deep impacts to the food supply

October 2021

What is Peptide Mapping?

2022-11-17T16:15:11-05:00October 28th, 2021|Articles|

Peptide mapping is a widely used analytical technique to verify the primary structure (amino acid sequence) and characterize the chemical modifications of a protein. It analyzes peptides generated from the digestion of an isolated protein, or a protein mixture

August 2021

Antibody Validation and its Use Cases

2022-08-17T18:12:35-04:00August 4th, 2021|Articles|

Antibodies are used in a variety of ways in academia and industry, from tools to therapeutics. Because antibodies are produced using live processes, which are naturally error-prone, validation is required from time to time. Furthermore, to develop biological therapeutics, the protein sequence must be confirmed as part of the regulatory process.

July 2021

Why Verifying the Protein Sequence Is Crucial for Antibody Validation

2022-04-25T19:13:45-04:00July 23rd, 2021|Articles|

Written by María Gerpe, PhD July 23, 2021 Why the Amino Acid Sequence Matters As proteins are assembled, they fold into different structural orders: from primary to quaternary. The exact sequence of the primary structure (the amino acid sequence) will dictate how a protein will fold and therefore function. The importance of [...]

What is Protein Mass Spectrometry?

2022-04-25T15:22:40-04:00July 18th, 2021|Articles|

Protein mass spectrometry refers to the use of mass spectrometry in the study and characterization of proteins, including their quantification, profiling, interaction mapping, and identification of their post-translational modifications (1,2). Protein mass spectrometry may also be referred to as mass spectrometry-based proteomics. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics consist of three approaches: top-down, middle-down, and bottom-up proteomics

Isoleucine and Leucine

2022-03-23T10:16:31-04:00July 7th, 2021|Articles|

Because they share the same mass, isoleucine and leucine are known as isobaric amino acids. Conventional mass spectrometry-based proteomics cannot be easily used to distinguish between isoleucine and leucine.

June 2021

Major Antibody Databases and Their Applications

2022-04-25T19:04:14-04:00June 18th, 2021|Articles|

Written by María Gerpe, PhD June 18, 2021 Introduction Research publications represent an additional source of validation proof for commercially available antibodies. As such, academic and industry scientists often also rely on publication references to decide which commercial antibody to purchase. Several independent efforts exist to compile such information. For instance, [...]

February 2017

Antibody Protein Sequence Analysis Using Mass Spectrometry

2022-04-25T18:11:31-04:00February 3rd, 2017|Articles|

One of the most important pieces of information researchers need to know during early stage antibody drug research and development is the sequence information of the antibody protein. With the advancement of mass spectrometry instrumentation and technologies, it is helpful, and sometimes critical, to conduct sequence analysis using mass spectrometry experiments.