Written by Genya Gorshtein, MSc September 14, 2022 Contents Introduction ADCs as Novel Anti-Cancer Chemotherapeutics Key Components of ADCs Future Generation of ADCs De Novo Protein Sequencing Applications in ADC Development Introduction An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) is a monoclonal antibody (mAb) with a covalently attached cytotoxic payload [...]
Written by Genya Gorshtein, MSc August 18, 2022 Contents Introduction How are Polyclonal Antibodies Produced? Applications of Polyclonal Antibodies Challenges of Polyclonal Antibodies De Novo Polyclonal Antibody Sequencing Introduction Polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) are a heterogeneous mix of antibodies derived from B cells in the adaptive immune system. [...]
Written by Genya Gorshtein, MSc August 10, 2022 Contents General Structure of Antibodies Fab and Fc Fragments Hinge Region CDR and FR Regions Antibody Structure Analysis Services General Structure of Antibodies Antibodies or immunoglobulins (Ig) maintain a common quaternary structure consisting of two identical heavy chains (HCs) and two [...]
Written by Yuning Wang, PhD May 31, 2022 Contents Background What is Polyclonal Antibody Sequencing? Applications of Polyclonal Antibody Sequencing Advantages of Polyclonal Antibody Sequencing World’s First: De Novo Polyclonal Antibody Sequencing at Rapid Novor Background The native immune system produces polyclonal antibodies (pAb) by different B-cell [...]
To develop robust mAb biologics, it is vital to fully characterize the protein, including its primary sequence, mutations, and important post-translational modifications
The transition from polyclonal antibody drugs to a more targeted monoclonal approach was made possible through a series of scientific and technological advancements; the most notable of which is the hybridoma technique developed by Köhler and Milstein, which allowed the generation of pure antibodies at scale.
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are homogenous antibodies that bind to a single epitope on an antigen. Kohler and Milstein generated the first mAbs when they developed hybridoma technology in the 1970s. Because of the specificity, homogeneity and unlimited availability, mAbs are valuable reagents used in a variety of important applications including treatment and diagnosis of diseases
Written by Yuning Wang, PhD August 1, 2021 What is DNA Sequencing? DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of four nucleotides bases—adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T)—that make up the DNA molecule. From Sanger sequencing to next-generation sequencing (NGS), DNA sequencing’s accessibility and ease [...]
Proteins are composed of peptide chains, which in turn are made up of a string or linear sequence of amino acids (Figure 1A). Every amino acid has a basic structure containing an amino (-NH2) group and a carboxylic (-COOH) group (Figure 1B). To form a peptide, amino acids link to each other via a peptide bond, which involves the reaction between the carboxylic group of one amino acid and the amine group of another amino acid (Figure 1B). As such, the primary structure of a protein is typically recorded starting at the amino-terminal (N) end and continuing to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end. The primary protein structure may be directly sequenced from a sample of the protein itself or inferred from the DNA sequence.
The protein sequence is key to understanding the function of a protein target and is critical to therapeutic and diagnostic development. This is particularly important for antibodies whose code diversity and glycosylation impact both function, and stability.
Antibody sequences are critical for antibody engineering and protein characterization in therapeutic development. For antibody reagent users, knowing the sequences allows them to perform sequence analysis/alignment to identify binding and cross-reactivity so they can conduct rational experiment design.
Mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are highly attractive for manipulation for therapeutic applications as their manufacturing is relatively easy and well-established compared to mAbs derived from larger animal models. However, they also pose several challenges which limit their use as therapeutic agents.
Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies (rAbs) are highly reproducible, customizable and pure alternatives to the traditional antibodies produced by hybridomas. Get the antibody protein sequence, either by DNA sequencing or the de novo protein sequencing technology, you can rest assured that you can have the exact antibody made recombinantly anytime in the future.